Knee osteoarthritis and a disease of the musculoskeletal system, which consists of deformation and destruction of cartilage tissue, as a result, the structure and the functions are cartilage violated. The disease has several names — osteoarthritis, deforming osteoarthritis. Treatment of knee OA has no clear or scheme in a single medicine that can contribute equally to all that this problem suffer. From osteoarthritis and a disease in nature with a progressive, occurs most frequently in women who suffer from obesity venous disease, and the elderly. The treatment and I do prescribe individually for each patient.
Osteoarthritis of the knee may be single or double (depending on d if they are one or two legs develop the disease). When the first symptoms to seek un proper treatment is ignorant because the problem can lead to the ultimate destruction of the cartilage and exposure of bones and, therefore, the disability of the person.
There are three stages of the disease:
- The initial stage of osteoarthritis is characterized by a loss of cushioning properties and as a result, cartilage in the movement to start a easy money with the'up against one another, causing severe discomfort for the patient. Cartilage returns to The rough, deformed, dry, in advanced stages of the disease, even covered with cracks.
- Due to the decrease in amortisation begins of the the, the deformation of the bones, which leads to the formacio of osteophytes (outgrowths on the surface of the bones) — this offers to the second stage of the disease. The deformation of the joint shell-command d and the capsule is also subject to deformation, the joint of the knee a little a little atrophy because of the limitations of movements. There is also the un change in the density of the set of fluid (becomes more dense and viscous), the bad circulation, the deterioration of nutrients in the knee joint. The thinning of the pads between the cartilage of the joints, reduces the distance between the articulated bones.
- The disease progresses rapidly and quickly moves to the third stage, the patient when it is almost none, and capable of moving because of the constant knee pain. In the cartilage there is a world of global changes and irreversible which leads to the disability of the person.
More often l l or arthrosis arthrosis develops original work of art of a trauma or injury, the person is sent a constant strong pain in the knee, significantly, which limit its movement.
The reasons for the development of osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis of the knee treatment that has quite a long time can occur factors due to such as:
- The genetic predisposition.
- Trauma: sprains, bruises, fractures. In the treatment of wounds of the knee joint is fixed and some people may not bend and stretch the leg. This leads to the poor circulation that often causes the development of post-traumatic gonarthrosis.
- Removal of the meniscus.
- Excessive physical exertion, not corresponding to the age of the person that leads to an injuries or trauma and hypothermia of the joints. For example, it is not recommended for the elderly to Run on the sidewalk or put in the squats, as these exercises, there is an important pressure on the knee joint, which takes place with age and are not able to carry out this type of loads.
- Excess weight and obesity. This factor leads the un damage of meniscus, injuries that may be incurred occur during the development of osteoarthritis of the knee.
- Loose ligaments or weak ligaments.
- Arthritis purchase or other diseases of the joints. The inflammatory process can cause the accumulation of synovial fluid in the joint cavity or a tumor. This causes a breakdown of cartilage of the knee, leading to osteoarthritis of the knee.
- Violation of metabolism in the human body. Sources of insufficiency of calcium significantly impairs the condition of the bone and tissue cartilaginous in the human body.
- Walk plan. Incorrect structure of the foot shifts the center of gravity of the I stress on the joint becomes more.
- Stress and nervous tension.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knees
The clinical picture of the disease, the following symptoms:
- The pain. The pain suddenly occurs, depending on the load physics in the knee joint. The pain may be different of nature. In the initial phase of the un's weak shot that usually the person won't pay much attention. Periodic weak pain can be more for months and years at times before the disease is not going to the un's more aggressive stage.
- Visible deformity of the knee. Symptom This is manifested in the later stages. First, you can see the knee swollen, or swollen.
- Accumulation of synovial fluid in the joint cavity or cyst Baker. And a tight formacio on the back of the knee joint.
- The crisis of the trade unions. Sharp crisp sound, which is accompanied by pain sensations experienced by the patients in the second and third stage of the disease.
- The response in the inflammatory joint synovial membrane", a consequence of the cartilage s inflates and increases in volume.
- Reduce the mobility of the joints. Observed in the later stages. The bending of the knee becomes almost impossible, and I accompanied by severe pain. In the last phase of the knee may be completely immobilized. The movement of the person that makes it difficult or even impossible (some patients more than bent legs).
Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
Treatment of knee OA should be comprehensive. Until now, no medical drug that eliminates this violation. One of the most important conditions of the success of treatment and diagnosis appropriate. As soon as the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee, are more likely to extend the period of remission and to prevent examine the destruction and the deformation of the cartilage bone and tissue.
In the treatment before the doctor, patient and has a number of objectives:
- To eliminate or reduce the pain;
- To improve the flow of nutrients to the knee joint and, therefore, enhance its regenerative functions;
- Boost the circulation of blood in the knee joint;
- To strengthen the muscles around the joint;
- To increase the mobility of the joints;
- Looking to increase the distance between the articulated bones.
The treatment of the disease depending on its stage of development can be conservative and operative al.
The treatment of osteoarthritis conservative knee
Relieve or reduce the pain, the patient is prescribed usually of the un's course of anti-inflammatory drugs non-steroidal (Aine). Can pills, creams and injections. Among the most common pain of drugs include the following. Drugs, These can be used in two ways: to the inside or topically.
In general the patients prefer local treatment in the form of gels, ointments, warming patches. The effect of these anesthetic drugs does not occur immediately, but works of original art for a few days (days approximately 3-4). Effect of The maximum d s original work of art gets a week of regular use of the drug. These drugs, the disease is not treated as such, but to relieve only the pain, since the treatment started when the pain and impossible.
The pain must be strictly according to the doctor, use them only in severe pain, because prolonged and frequent use can lead to side effects and, even in the of reproach destruction of cartilage tissue. In addition, chronic administration of these drugs increases the risk of adverse reactions, including stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcers, disruption of the normal functioning of the liver, the kidneys, and its possible manifestations allergic form of dermatitis.
Sometimes in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee prescribed are un course of hormonal therapy. Are prescribed if Aine's have become effective, and the disease starts to progress. The more Marta hormonal drugs for the treatment of this disease s applied in the form of injections.
The course of treatment and the hormonal therapy usually short and and and assigned during exacerbations severe, when the joint and accumulated inflammatory fluid. Hormone l a s injected once the board every ten days.
To restore and cartilage feeding in the early stages of the disease a been assigned a un course of treatment with glucosamine and chondroitinsulfate — the so-called chondroprotectors. Away This offers a more you treatment of osteoarthritis. They have almost no contraindications, and the side effects that manifest themselves in exceptional cases.
To relieve spasm of small of blood vessels, circulation improvement of blood and delivery of nutrients to the area of the knee joint, I vascular pain drugs vasodilators. You mash with chondroprotectors. If d knee arthritis and not accompanied by accumulation of fluid, it is also recommended to use warming ointment, gels, liquids.
The un's course of physical therapy can be very useful and bring good results only when the case prescribed by a physician and held under observation, according to the recommendations of the expert or coach. Self-medication and dangerous for the health. Physical therapy as s uses the un most of the prevention of destruction of cartilage, slowing the development of the stiffness, the relaxation of spasm causing muscle pain. In the period of acute therapy is contraindicated. The un course of exercises individuals are special, they do not take into account only the phase of the disease and the condition in which the cartilage and the age of the patient, to develop their knowledge in this area.
As one of the methods of therapy conservative used physiotherapy, electrophoresis, laser therapy, acupuncture, diadynamic currents, UHF. Positive results on a s obtained and the type of local massage. Physiotherapy act in destinations in ways — relieve pain, reduce inflammation, normalize the metabolism within the joint, regain their normal function. Mode, duration of treatment and physical therapy due to a history of the patient and appointed original art works only a comprehensive diagnosis and study of the condition of the joints.
For pain therapy physical are:
- Medium-wave irradiation, ultraviolet (UV-irradiation). Contact of ultraviolet radiation with the skin of the knee is continued until the un light redness. The tissues formed substances are that dull the sensitivity of nerve fibers, which analgesic effect. The duration of the course prescribed for the treatment of the doctor according to the symptoms, the frequency and the severity of the pain. The average course of treatment approximately and 7-8 sessions.
- Local magnetic therapy, total directed to the recovery of the patient. This procedure reduces inflammation, eliminates pain and neutralizes muscle spasms. Effectively used for a thread of the joint osteoarthritis of the knee in the initial in stages. The treatment is usually limited to a 20-25 procedures, each of which jade for about half an hour.
- Infrared laser therapy of low intensity UHF-therapy, therapy centimeter (SMV-therapy).
- Ultrasound, darsonvalization, baths medicinal, the interference-therapy, and appointed that, for the purpose of improving the circulation of blood in the joint.
Equally important, and the health-resort treatment. Assigned to this treatment in deformans and osteoarthritis. This type of treatment, as previously in the list, its contraindications has, so the doctor carefully examines the history of the patient suggest before you the health-resort of the journal method.
Surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
This method un-radical in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee, partially or fully, which restores the functioning of the joint. Methods and forms of depends surgery the degree of the disease of the joints, and the clinical history of the patient.
At the end of osteoarthritis of the knee treated only by surgery of the knee joint and totally or partially replaced by the prosthesis. Surgical without Treatment can only improve health, but also to return a disabled patient in the last stages of osteoarthritis of the knee. The un inconvenient major operation of l', that many people think of a long period of use with retrieval of physical exercise, therapy, mechanotherapy, and other tools.
There are several types of surgical intervention for osteoarthritis a the knee:
Prevention of the of the joint in osteoarthritis of the knee
To avoid examining this disease, people at risk (athletes, the elderly, people with overweight employees of the companies) have to comply with certain rules:
- A proper nutrition and fight against obesity. You must eliminate from your diet harmful foods fatty, fried and alcohol, and better to consult with a dietitian, that individually each help to choose the right diet.
- En the sport to control the loads at the joints, if necessary to reduce it.
- Monitor your health and the treatment of infectious diseases, the prevention of its transition to the stage of the chronic.
- Timely and appropriate treatment of diseases of the spine, if appropriate, the development of a correct posture.
- Sports (Cycling, swimming, walking, special gymnastic exercises for the joints).
- No self-medication! When the first symptoms of arthritis of the knee in order to contact with the clinic.
- To avoid examining the stress, have good sleep.
- Systematically increase your immunity (of the team or at least to make un course of vitamin 2-3 times in the any).
- To avoid examining the hypothermia, especially of the lower extremities.
Healthy lifestyle and timely treatment is the best prevention of arthritis of the knee.