Osteoarthritis of the knee

Arthritis called the chronic disease of a joint in which the cartilage of the progressive's beginning to fade. As the destruction of cartilage produce changes in the bone, covered by cartilage and the joint capsule.

Osteoarthritis of the knee

What does the word arthritis and what are its synonyms?

The term arthritis comes from the word grega "artros" — and together, the suffix "Otis", a non — inflammatory disease. However, this description of the head and all, as exact in the case of arthrosis of the joint that there are some changes inflammatory. In English-speaking countries "and our" arthritis in the majority of cases, so-called arthritis (arthrithis), and a mean, a disease of the joints inflammatory (the suffix "a"), while arthritis and commonly called the submarine of the union in rheumatic diseases, infectious, purulent lesions of the joints, etc. Sometimes, this disagreement of trying to fix another term: arthrosis, but it appears very rarely.

A modern, scientific articles, more Marta out osteoarthritis l (from the Greek words "osteo" — bone "artros" — joint, and one to say, non-inflammatory disease of joints and bones). And again in English-speaking countries "our" osteoartroz called osteoarthritis (ostheoarthrithis), and a mean, a disease of the joints inflammatory and bones.

Often patients we hear the question: "in the beginning I was diagnosed with arthritis, and now osteoarthritis write. And everything so wrong?". In fact, and the osteoarthritis arthritis - synonyms and their doctors, he said about the same.

As we have pointed out at the beginning, in the case of osteoarthritis (osteoarthritis) the cartilage of the progressive collapses s and in the process gradually involved and the bones. Degenerative osteoarthritis of the When it occurs in the bone of the first section of the multiple sclerosis (seals) as a result of the loss of the cartilage shock absorbing properties. Below is tapering the edges of the bones (exostosis), and mistakenly often referred to as "the deposits of salts"— in fact, it is in conditions of osteoarthritis there are salt deposits there. Later In the course of the disease, the bone begins to bend warp, formed cysts: often, the disease s called deforming arthrosis (osteoarthritis). En the old medical books, you can sometimes find the phrase "disfiguring arthritis", but not used now almost never.

Pain in the joints

The exact cause of osteoarthritis has been considered unknown, so that there is another name for this disease, idiopathic osteoarthritis, and say, arthritis and caused by reasons unknown or spontaneously. Of course, now the scientists believe that osteoarthritis and a mystery, and the reasons for its development are known. Read more about the causes of arthritis, about which a primary and secondary osteoarthritis are described below.

Arthritis is often the joints it affects, that the experience to the maximum load (hip, knee, ankle joint, joints of the hand). Osteoarthritis of the joints of the hip, called coxarthrosis (the word "coxa" hip), ankle - crurosteoarthritis ("cruris" - the tibia), the knee - gonarthrosis ("gene" knee). In the majority of cases, affects both osteoarthritis l l articulation of the knee, with one of the joints can be destroyed more powerful. In this case, it seems that the diagnosis of bilateral gonarthrosis primary with a lesion of the right (or left) knee.

Often arthritis affected no one, but destinations joint, so use another term - the polyosteoarthrosis, which means the submarine three or more joints (two symmetrical, for example, the knees, and some others). In this case, the diagnosis is usually the following: the polyosteoarthrosis injury primary with one of the knee joints (or one of them).

What is osteoarthritis causes of knee?

Osteoarthritis of the knee and different. Depending on their causes, there are primary and secondary osteoarthritis.

Primary osteoarthritis of the knee

Articular cartilage and destroyed constantly and renewed, and usually these processes are balanced. The With age, the renewal of cartilage's slows down and starts to dominate the destruction of the cartilage, which and called degradation or degeneration.

The process of synthesis and destruction of cartilage, a normal and balanced. If it starts to dominate the degeneration will begin osteoarthritis of the knee

In the majority of cases, the degeneration of the cartilage, and a say, the development of osteoarthritis, it produces original works of art 45-50 years, but sometimes the osteoarthritis can develop in a 20-letih. Fortunately, the development of osteoarthritis at a young age and so extremely rare.

People are prone to osteoarthritis

People are prone to it from the joint to arthrosis of the knee, in a greater or lesser extent. In general, if there is arthritis, and it is precisely in the age of 40-60 years, and if the age of 60, and osteoarthritis, and it is likely that you do not already, to, or, more specifically, osteoarthritis and insignificant (certain degenerative changes in the knee joint occur in all older persons, but that expressed in s differently).

And important to keep in mind that if you have to take and make an x-ray of all the people and more of age than let's say 60 years, the signs of osteoarthritis will be almost 90%, but not all felt they the knees as a problem. Especially the houses that often have "severe" arthritis does not manifest itself or cause the minimum of discomfort.

Primary osteoarthritis occurs spontaneously, and a say, without starting factors, for this reason, a so-called idiopathic, which we have talked about before.

Thus, we have found it is surrounded by that age and principles of the un of the factors that determine The development of arthritis, because with age of mastery to begin the process of degeneration of the cartilage. One out of every four people aged over 55 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the knee. But we should also point out that with the age osteoarthritis does not develop at all. As well, there are other reasons. Before enumerating them, keep in mind that not and the main main reason. Osteoarthritis of the knee develops due to these reasons, with some play un more important role, others are more small.

Paul. Most often osteoarthritis of the knee affects women. The reasons for the exact are unknown, but could be explained by the following reasons. The average life expectancy of women more than men and, in consequence, the average of the women are older pronounced degenerative processes. In addition, body mass of women on average have a slightly higher. The size of the bones in women are less than men and, along with a important body weight this leads to increased pressure in the knee joint, and, consequently, the more intensive the mechanics of the destruction of the cartilage. Podovlyayuschee In the majority of cases in women, The arthritis begins to manifest works of original art the cessation of menstruation, and possibly estrogen deficiency determines the development of osteoarthritis. Note that attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee in the original work of art by the women of the menopause estrogen, of course, is made, but are unsuccessful.

Weight. Of course, the more the weight of the greater burden that we must carry on our knee joints. In addition, obesity reduces physical activity and leads to weakness of the muscles of the thigh. For the more active synthesis of cartilage necessary movement (in the sense excess pressure), and sedentary lifestyle, the process of degeneration of the cartilage start to dominate. Muscle of the thigh and an important stabilizer of the knee, I weakness d with these muscles of movement in the knee joint flexibility was more that accelerates the destruction of cartilage. All of these processes can be described as a vicious circle: the more weight, the faster it reduces the articulation of the knee, pain, more hard to move, again, that leads to excess weight.

Weight with osteoarthritis

The circle of the vicious obesity and osteoarthritis of knee

On the other hand does not have arthritis of the knee develops ca only be full of people - those who do not have obesity can also suffer from osteoarthritis. Again, and this, because of the osteoarthritis did not have a single cause.

The inheritance. This has always been that the observed osteoarthritis of the knee, "the family" of the disease. Osteoarthritis, a If l o was your parents, then, unfortunately, the probability of this disease and of the high and. Have found is surrounded by scientists many genetic characteristics responsible, for example, individuals with characteristics of the of the main structure of protein, cartilage, collagen, but, unfortunately, these discoveries have no practical significance, because it affects human genes for the prevention or treatment of osteoarthritis, there is no we can still. There is No evidence of degenerative osteoarthritis of the of the inheritance passes through the female line, which explains for the most part propensity to the disease.

Primary osteoarthritis of the knee will not produce a single reason, I only in its entirety. While osteoarthritis of the knee in different degrees, and is present in almost all people over 60 years of age, but the severity of the arthrosis and very different, and not always detected arthritis in raigs x, is evident. In reality, and even more difficult: not every pain in the knee joint to a great person, especially in the age of 40-60 years, will be accompanied by changes of the characteristic osteoarthritis in x-rays.

For example, the researchers found that 76% of older people with complaints of the knee pain x-rays revealed osteoarthritis. And say, without any pain in the knee joint to a great person – and, no doubt, of the degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee. On the other hand, among all the persons detected in the radiograph of osteoarthritis of the knee only 81% will be required to produce complaints of pain. One That is not always at the disposal of osteoarthritis and pain.

Strictly speaking, not compulsory for the connection of severity of pain severity of knee OA on radiographs. It happens that the changes in the x-rays are much smaller, and the pain of a very strong and sometimes the other way round: in the x-rays of the joint and completely destroyed, and the people can ride a bike, do yoga, the painter as a work, and in these cases we find ourselves almost every day.

Radiograph of the knee joint

Most often osteoarthritis of the knee begins with an inside (medial) division.

Radiograph of the knee joint affected by osteoarthritis on the inside. A blue arrow marked on the outside of the division of the joint, orange and, the internal joint. Note how much closer the gap between the bones of the inner side: in the cartilage non-radiograph and visible, and I this vacuum, and the means of cartilage. In this case, the inner side of the knee articular cartilage and almost gone and bone rubs against bone.

With the progressive wear of the cartilage in the inner side of the knee joint, the leg starts to bend. Because osteoarthritis often the joint affects both the knee and bilateral, is starting to bend warp the two legs, and there are one Or in the form of a deformity of the legs (varus deformity).

Rarely (approximately of the un 10% of the cases), osteoarthritis affects the rest of the parts of the set, and in this case, it starts a X (valgus) deformity.

Of course, when the bending load in the interior (with O-ring) or external (X-form) versions of the voltage increases, even more, osteoarthritis and the are developed more quickly and more permanently.

Osteoarthritis can begin not only to the exterior or interior of the division, but also between the kneecap (the patella) and the intercondylar groove of the femur. Called This option s patello-femoral arthritis occurs and usually due to the tilt, patellar subluxation, syndrome of the lateral giperpirexii , and on our website in another article, original works of art or of fractures of the patella , which you can also read in another article.

Secondary osteoarthritis of knee

Knee arthritis can develop due to specific reasons, in this case, it is called secondary osteoarthritis. Now let's talk briefly about the options of secondary osteoarthritis.

Post-traumatic arthrosis of the knee joint. Injuries of the knee, of course, not necessary to add the joint health and almost all of them, in one way or another, increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis.

One of the most common injuries of the knee joint – meniscus ruptures, and that on our website in another article . Unfortunately, any person with a history of substance never tear of the meniscus increases the risk of osteoarthritis. If damaged medial (inside) meniscus, and osteoarthritis develops it is likely that in the interior of the division of the knee joint. And, as a consequence, if the rupture of the meniscus external osteoarthritis and will be developed in the external part of the joint. Keep in mind that the meniscus tear and not necessarily always for osteoarthritis, uvelichivaet the likelihood of its development. Of course, the more damaged the meniscus, the higher the risk of developing osteoarthritis.

Post-traumatic arthrosis of the knee joint

Another reason for the development of osteoarthritis of the knee torn ligaments, for example, anterior cruciate ligament rupture . As a result of the breaking ligament of a joint may appear instability, which, of course, will lead to the un damage of the cartilage and development of osteoarthritis. Naturally, the damage to the cartilage depends on the degree of instability, which may be different.

Much more severe, to the injury of the knee – fracture of the condyles or tibia fracture of the condyles of the femur If the fracture line enters the joint surface, then s is called this fracture intra-articulate. Virtually any intra-articulate fracture, accompanied with displacement of the fragments, and therefore, the shape of the surface to articulate. The subsequent displacement step inevitably leads to the progressive destruction of cartilage and the onset of osteoarthritis. Of course, the more severe the fracture, the more intra-articulating fragments of the fracture, the more damaged the cartilage and a greater risk of developing osteoarthritis. Original works of art of a jade multisplintered condyles fractures of the tibia, osteoarthritis develops in almost 100% of cases, even in a perfectly executed operation osteosynthesis (eliminating the displacement of bone fragments bone together with screws, plates, etc.)